Last Updated: 4/22/22


Rains, S. A. (2018). Coping with illness digitally. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [MIT Press] [Amazon]


Peer Reviewed Journal Articles
*All co-authors were graduate students or post-docs.

Banas, J. A., Palomares, N. A., Richards, A. S., Joyce, N., Keating, D. M., & Rains, S. A. (in press). When machine and bandwagon heuristics compete: Understanding users’ responses to conflicting AI and crowdsourced fact-checking. Human Communication Research.

Keating, D. M., Richards, A. S., Palomares, N. A., Banas, J. A., Joyce, N., & Rains, S. A. (in press). Titling practices and their implications in communication research 1970-2010: Cutesy cues carry citation consequences. Communication Research.

Rains, S. A., Harber, P., Warner, E. L., & Leroy, G. (in press). Public responses to COVID-19 mask mandates: Examining pro and anti-mask anger in tweets before and after state level mandates. Communication Monographs.

Rains, S. A., Leroy, G., Warner, E. L., & Harber, P. (in press). Psycholinguistic markers of COVID-19 conspiracy tweets and predictors of tweet dissemination. Health Communication.

Rains, S. A., & Scott, C. R. (in press). To identify or not to identify? That…depends on the context: Testing a model of receiver responses to anonymous communication. Communication Reports.

Shmargad, Y., Coe, C., Kenski, K., & Rains, S. A. (in press). Social norms and the dynamics of online incivility. Social Science Computer Review.

*Warner, E. L., Barbati, J. L., Duncan, K. L., Yan, K., & Rains, S. A.  (in press). Vaccine misinformation types and properties in Russian troll tweets. Vaccine.

*Yan, K., Barbati, J. L., Duncan, K. L., Warner, E. L., & Rains, S. A. (in press). Russian troll vaccine misinformation dissemination on Twitter: The role of political partisanship. Health Communication.

Ivanov, B., Rains, S. A., Dillingham, L. L., Parker, K. A., Geegan, S., & Barbati, J. L. (2022). Role of threat and counterarguing in therapeutic inoculation. Southern Communication Journal, 87, 15-27.

Rains, S. A., & Meng, J. (2022). Social enhancement and compensation in online social support among cancer patients: The role of social network properties. Health Communication, 37, 490-497.

Barbati, J. L., Rains, S. A., Ivanov, B., & Banas, J. A. (2021). Evaluating classic and contemporary ideas about persuasion resistance in inoculation theory: Argument strength, refutation strength, and forewarning. Communication Research Reports, 38(4), 272-281.

Hesse, C., Floyd, K., Rains, S. A., Mikkelson, A. C., Pauley, P. M., Woo, N. T., Custer, B. E., & Duncan, K. L. (2021). Affectionate communication and health: A meta-analysis. Communication Monographs, 88, 194-218.

Meng, J., Rains, S. A., & An, Z. (2021). How cancer patients benefit from support networks offline and online: Extending the model of structural-to-functional support. Health Communication, 21, 198-206.

*Rains, S. A., Ashtaputre, A., Nemcova, K., Lutovsky, B. R., Tsetsi, E., Pavlich, C. A., & Akers, C. (2021). The evolution of supportive conversations: Tracking within-discussion changes in support seeking and provision messages. Communication Monographs, 88(4), 483-505.

Rains, S. A., & High, A. C. (2021). The effects of person-centered social support messages on recipient distress over time within an interaction. Journal of Communication, 71, 380-402.

Rains, S. A., Shmargad, Y., Coe, K., Kenski, K., & Bethard, S. (2021). Assessing the Russian troll efforts to sow discord on Twitter during the 2016 U.S. election. Human Communication Research, 47(4), 477-486.

Turner, M. M., & Rains, S. A. (2021). Guilt appeals in persuasive communication: A meta-analytic review. Communication Studies, 72, 684-700.

Zhao, P., Lapierre, M., Rains, S. A., & Segrin, C. (2021). When and why we disclose distress on SNSs: Perceived

Kenski, K., Coe, K., & Rains, S. A. (2020). Perceptions of uncivil discourse online: An examination of types and predictors. Communication Research, 47, 795-814.

Rains, S. A. (2020). Big data, computational social science, and health communication: A review and agenda for advancing theory. Health Communication, 35, 26-34.

*Rains, S. A., Akers, C., Pavlich, C. A., Tsetsi, E., Ashtaputre, A., & Lutovsky, B. R. (2020). The role of support seeker expectations in supportive communication. Communication Monographs, 87, 445-463.

Rains, S. A., Keating, D. M., Banas, J. A., Richards, A., & Palomares, N. A. (2020). The state and evolution and communication research. Computational Communication Research, 2, 203-234.

*Rains, S. A., Pavlich, C. A., Lutovsky, B., Tsetsi, E., & Ashtaputre, A. (2020). Support seeker expectations, support message quality, and supportive interaction processes and outcomes: The case of the comforting computer program revisited. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 37, 647-666.

*Rains, S. A., Pavlich, C. A., Tsetsi, E., & Akers, C. (2020). Evaluating the scope and theoretical mechanisms of person-centered support: The case of the comforting computer program. Communication Research, 47, 512-540.

*Tsetsi, E. L., & Rains, S. A. (2020). Inequality, social networks, and Internet use: Exploring the implications of the social diversification hypothesis. Human Communication & Technology, 1, 1-19.

Scott, C. R., & Rains, S. A. (2020). (Dis)connections in anonymous communication theory: Exploring conceptualizations of anonymity in communication research. Annals of the International Communication Association, 44, 385-400.

Yeshua-Katz, D., Rains, S. A., Peterson, E. B., & Wright, K. B. (2020). Digital stigma coping strategies: A meta-analytic review of the association between health-related stigma dimensions and social support messages shared online. The Information Society, 36, 19-29.

Ivanov, B., Dillingham, L. L., Parker, K. A., Rains, S. A., Burchett, M., & Geegan, S. (2018). Sustainable attitudes: Protecting tourism with inoculation messages. Annals of Tourism Research, 73, 26-34.

Loescher, L. J., Rains, S. A., Kramer, S., Akers, C., & Moussa, R. (2018). A systematic review of mobile phone text messaging interventions to enhance healthy lifestyle behaviors in adolescents. American Journal of Health Promotion, 32, 856-879. [pdf]

*Rains, S. A., & Brunner, S. R. (2018). The outcomes of broadcasting self-disclosure using new communication technologies: Responses to disclosure vary across one’s social network. Communication Research, 45, 659-687. [pdf]

Rains, S. A., Levine, T. R., & Weber, R. (2018). Sixty years of quantitative communication research summarized: Lessons from 149 meta-analyses. Annals of the International Communication Association, 42, 105-124.

Bolkan, S., & Rains, S. A. (2017). The legitimization of paltry contributions (LPC) as a compliance gaining technique: A meta-analysis testing three explanations. Communication Research, 44, 976-996. [pdf]

Ivanov, B., Rains, S. A., Geegan, S. A., Vos, S. C., Haarstad, N. D., & Parker, K. A. (2017). Beyond simple inoculation: Examining the persuasive value of inoculation for audiences with initially neutral or negative attitudes. Western Journal of Communication, 81, 105-126. [pdf]

Pavlich. C. A., Rains, S. A., & Segrin, C. (2017). The nonverbal bully: Effects of shouting and conversational distance on bystanders’ perceptions. Communication Reports, 30, 129-141.

*Rains, S. A., Brunner, S. R., Akers, C., Pavlich, C. A., & Goktas, S. (2017). Computer-mediated communication (CMC) and social support: Testing the effects of using CMC on support outcomes. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 34,1186-1205. [pdf]

Rains, S. A., Kenski, K., Coe, K., & Harwood, J. (2017). Incivility and political identity on the Internet: Intergroup factors as predictors of incivility in discussions of news online. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 22, 163-178.

*Rains, S. A., & Tsetsi, E. (2017). Social support and digital inequality: Does Internet use magnify or mitigate traditional inequities in support availability? Communication Monographs, 84, 54-74. [pdf]

Rising, C., Bol, N., Burke-Garcia, A., Rains, S. A., & Wright, K. B. (2017). Perceived stress in online prostate cancer community participants: Examining relationships with stigmatization, social support network preference, and social support seeking. Journal of Health Communication, 22, 469-476.

*Tsetsi, E., & Rains, S. A. (2017). Smartphone Internet access and use: Extending the digital divide and usage gap. Mobile Media & Communication, 5, 239-255.

van Ingen, E., Rains, S. A., & Wright, K. B. (2017). Does social network site use buffer against well-being loss when older adults face reduced functional ability? Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 168-177.

Parker, K. A., Rains, S. A., & Ivanov, B. (2016). Examining the “blanket of protection” conferred by inoculation: The effects of inoculation messages on the cross-protection of related attitudes. Communication Monographs, 83, 49-68. [pdf]

Rains, S. A. (2016). Language style matching as a predictor of perceived social support in computer-mediated interaction among individuals coping with illness. Communication Research, 43, 694-712. [pdf]

*Rains, S. A., Brunner, S. R., Akers, C., Pavlich, C. A., & Tsetsi, E. (2016). The implications of computer-mediated communication (CMC) for social support message processing and outcomes: When and why are the effects of support messages strengthened during CMC? Human Communication Research, 42, 553-576. [pdf]

*Rains, S. A., Brunner, S. R., & Oman, K. (2016). Self-disclosure and new communication technologies: The implications of receiving superficial self-disclosures from friends. Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 33, 42-61. [pdf]

Rains, S. A., & Ruppel, E. K. (2016). Channel complementarity theory and the health information-seeking process: Further investigating the implications of source characteristic complementarity. Communication Research, 43, 232-252. [pdf]

Rains, S. A., & Wright, K. B. (2016). Social support and computer-mediated communication: A state-of-the-art review and agenda for future research. Annals of the International Communication Association, 40, 175-211. [pdf]

Tokunaga, R. S., & Rains, S. A. (2016). A review and meta-analysis examining conceptual and operational definitions of problematic Internet use. Human Communication Research, 42, 165-199. [pdf]

*Keating, D. M., & Rains, S. A. (2015). Health blogging and social support: A three-year panel study. Journal of Health Communication, 20, 1449-1457. [pdf]

*Rains, S. A. & Brunner, S. R. (2015). What can we learn about social network sites by studying Facebook? A call and recommendations for research on social network sites. New Media & Society, 17, 114-131. [pdf]

*Rains, S. A., & Keating, D. M. (2015). Health blogging: An examination of the outcomes associated with making public, written disclosures about health. Communication Research, 42, 107-133. [pdf]

Rains, S. A., Peterson, E., & Wright, K. B. (2015). Communicating social support in computer-mediated contexts: A meta-analytic review of content analyses examining support messages shared online among individuals coping with illness. Communication Monographs, 82, 403-430. [pdf]

Rains, S. A., & Tukachinsky, R. (2015). An examination of the relationships among uncertainty, appraisal, and information-seeking behavior proposed in uncertainty management theory. Health Communication, 30, 339-349. [pdf]

*Rains, S. A., & Tukachinsky, R. (2015). Information seeking in uncertainty management theory: Exposure to information about medical uncertainty and information-processing orientation as predictors of uncertainty management success. Journal of Health Communication, 20, 1275-1286.

Coe, K., Kenski, K., & Rains, S. A. (2014). Online and uncivil? Patterns and determinants of incivility in newspaper website comments. Journal of Communication, 64, 658-679. [pdf]

Rains, S. A. (2014). Health information seeking and the World Wide Web: An uncertainty management perspective. Journal of Health Communication, 19, 1296-1307. [pdf]

Rains, S. A. (2014). The implications of stigma and anonymity for self-disclosure in health blogs. Health Communication, 29, 23-31. [pdf]

Wright, K. B., & Rains, S. A. (2014). Weak tie support preference and coping style as predictors of perceived credibility within health-related on-line support groups. Health Communication, 29, 281-287. [pdf]

Rains, S. A. (2013). The nature of psychological reactance revisited: A meta-analytic review. Human Communication Research, 29, 47-73. [pdf

Wright, K. B., & Rains, S. A. (2013). Weak tie support network preference, stigma, and health outcomes in computer-mediated support groups. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 41, 309-324. [pdf]

*Ruppel, E. K., & Rains, S. A. (2012). Information sources and the health information-seeking process: An application and extension of channel complementarity theory. Communication Monographs, 79, 358-405. [pdf]

*Rains, S. A., & Keating, D. M. (2011). The social dimension of blogging about health: Health blogging, social support, and well-being. Communication Monographs, 78, 511-534. [pdf

Scott, C. R., Rains, S. A., & Haseki, M. (2011). Anonymous communication: Unmasking findings across fields. Annals of the International Communication Association, 35, 299-340. [pdf]

Stephens, K. K., & Rains, S. A. (2011). Information and communication technology sequences and message repetition in interpersonal interaction. Communication Research, 38, 101-122. [pdf]

Banas, J. A., & Rains, S. A. (2010). A meta-analysis of research on inoculation theory. Communication Monographs, 77, 281-311. [pdf]

*Tokunaga, R. S., & Rains, S. A. (2010). An evaluation of two characterizations of the relationships between problematic Internet use (PIU), time spent using the Internet, and psychosocial problems. Human Communication Research, 36, 512-545. [pdf]

Wright, K. B., Rains, S., & Banas, J. A. (2010). Weak tie support network preference and computer-mediated support groups.  Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 15, 606-624. [pdf]

Turner, M. M., Banas, J. A., Rains, S. A., Jang, S., Moore, J. L., & Morrison, D. (2010). The effects of altercasting and counterattitudinal behavior on compliance: A lost letter technique investigation. Communication Reports, 23, 1-13. [pdf]

*Rains, S. A., & Bosch, L. A. (2009). Privacy and health in the Information Age: A content analysis of health website privacy policy statements. Health Communication, 24, 435-447. [pdf]
*Rains, S. A., & Young, V. (2009). A meta-analysis of research on formal computer-mediated support groups: Examining group characteristics and health outcomes. Human Communication Research, 35, 309-336. [pdf]
Rains, S. A., Tumlin, G. T., & Knapp, M. L. (2009). Electronic bumper stickers: The content and interpersonal functions of messages attached to e-mail signatures. Discourse Studies, 11, 105-120. [pdf]
*Rains, S. A., & Donnerstein, C. K. (2009). Health information seeking and perceptions of website credibility: Examining web-use motivation, message characteristics, and structural features of websites. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 544-553. [pdf]
Rains, S. A. (2008). Health at high speed: Broadband Internet access, health communication, and the digital divide. Communication Research, 35, 283-97. [pdf]
D’Urso, S. D., & Rains, S. A. (2008). Examining the scope of channel expansion: A test of channel expansion theory with new and traditional communication media. Management Communication Quarterly, 21, 486-507. [pdf]
Rains, S. A. (2008). Seeking health information in the Information Age: The role of Internet self-efficacy. Western Journal of Communication, 72, 1-18. [pdf]
Rains, S. A. (2007). Perceptions of traditional information sources and use of the World Wide Web to seek health information: Findings from the Health Information National Trends Survey. Journal of Health Communication, 12, 667-680. [pdf]
Rains, S. A., & Turner, M. M. (2007) Psychological reactance and persuasive health communication: A test and extension of the intertwined model. Human Communication Research, 33, 241-269. [pdf]
Rains, S. A. (2007). The impact of anonymity on perceptions of source credibility and influence in computer-mediated group communication: A test of two competing hypotheses. Communication Research, 34, 100-125. [pdf]
Rains, S. A. (2007). The anonymity effect: The influence of anonymity on perceptions of sources and information on health websites. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 35, 197-214. [pdf]
Rains, S. A., & Scott, C. R. (2007). To identify or not to identify: A theoretical model of receiver responses to anonymous communication. Communication Theory, 17, 61-91. [pdf]
Rains, S. A., & Young, A. M. (2006). A sign of the times: An analysis of organizational members' email signatures. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11, 1046-1061. [pdf]
Rains, S. A. (2005). Leveling the organizational playing field–virtually: A meta-analysis of experimental research assessing the impact of group support system use on member influence behaviors. Communication Research, 32, 193-234. [pdf]
Scott, C. R., & Rains, S. A. (2005). Anonymous communication in organizations: Assessing use and appropriateness. Management Communication Quarterly, 19, 157-197. [pdf]

Refereed Conference Proceedings

Ozler, K. B., Kenski, K., Rains, S., Shmargad, Y., Coe, K., & Bethard, S. (2020). Fine-tuning BERT for multi-domain and multi-label uncivil language detection. Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Online Abuse and Harms (pp. 28-33). Association for Computational Linguistics.

Sadeque, F., Rains, S., Shmargad, Y., Kenski, K., Coe, K., & Bethard, S. (2019). Incivility detection in online comments. Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (pp. 283-291). Association for Computational Linguistics.


Invited Journal Articles

Rains, S. A., Crane, T. E., Iyengar, S., Merchant, N., Oxnam, M., Sprinkle, M. M., & Ernst, K. C. (2020). Community-level health promotion during a pandemic: Key considerations for health communication. Health Communication, 35, 1747-1749.

Rains, S. A., Matthes, J., & Palomares, N. A. (2020). Communication science and meta-analysis: Introduction to the special issue. Human Communication Research, 46, 115-119.

Rains, S. A. (2019). One the opportunity and value of an NCA journal dedicated to communication and technology: Quantifying a missed opportunity. Human Communication & Technology, 1, 4-8. [link]


Book Chapters

Rains, S. A., & Tokunaga, R. S. (in press). The role of emotion in maladaptive Internet use: Internet addiction, problematic Internet use, and deficient self-regulation. In J. G. Myrick & R. L. Nabi (Eds.), Our online emotional selves. Oxford University Press.

*Rains, S. A., & Nemcova, K. (2021). Health-related self-disclosure online: Emotion expression by one online community member across 460 posts. In C. Liberman & K. B. Wright (Eds.), Casing mediated communication. Kendall Hunt.

Rains, S. A. (2020). Communication technology affordances and the production of social support messages. In N. Egbert and K. B. Wright (Eds.), Social support and health in the digital age (pp. 29-46). Lexington Books.

Rains, S. A. (2015). Social support. In D. K. Kim & J. W. Dearing (Eds.), Health communication measures (pp. 223-232). Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.

*Rains, S. A., Brunner, S. R., & Oman, K. (2014). Social media and risk communication. In H. Cho, T. Reimer, & K. McComas (Eds.), The Sage handbook of risk communication (pp. 228-240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rains, S. A., & Scott, C. R. (2005). Virtual teams in the traditional classroom: Lessons on new communication technologies and training. In S. Ferris & S. Godar (Eds.), Teaching and learning with virtual teams (pp. 268-292). Hershey, PA: The Idea Group.


Encyclopedia Entries

Rains, S. A. (in press). Health blogging. In E. Ho, C. Bylund, & J. van Weert (Eds.), The International encyclopedia of health communication. Wiley.  

Yang, Q., & Rains, S. A. (in press). Computational health communication. In E. Ho, C. Bylund, & J. van Weert (Eds.), The International encyclopedia of health communication. Wiley.  

Rains, S. A. (2018). Blogging, microblogging and exposure to health and risk messages. In R. Parrott, Encyclopedia of health and risk message design and processing. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Rains, S. A., & Bonito, J. A. (2017). Adaptive structuration theory. In C. R. Scott & L. Lewis (Eds.), International encyclopedia of organizational communication (pp. 1-9). Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell.

*Keating, D. M., & Rains, S. A. (2014). Expressive writing and health. In T. L. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of health communication (pp. 475-476). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rains, S. A. (2014). Communication, computer-mediated support, and satisfaction with health. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 1018-1020). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Rains, S. A. (2014). Health blogging. In T. L. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of health communication (pp. 546-547). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rains, S. A. (2014). Theoretical frameworks, communication technology. In T. L. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of health communication (pp. 1387-1390). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Electronic Publications

Rains, S. A., Peterson, E., & Wright, K. B. (2015). Seeking social support in the information age: What types of support messages do people coping with illness receive online? Communication Currents, 10(6).

Rains, S. A. & Keating, D. M. (2011). Health blogging, social support, and well-being. Communication Currents, 6(6).

Rains, S. A. (2007). Anonymity and health information on the World Wide Web. Communication Currents, 2(3).


White Papers

Rains, S., Shmargad, Y., Kenski, K., Coe, K., Ozler, B., & Bethard., S. (2019). Local governance, civil discourse, and social media: Charting incivility from and directed at Tucson-area elected officials. Making Action Possible in Southern Arizona (MAP Dashboard). [link]


Note: The copyright for the publications listed on this webpage is held by the publisher for each respective journal. Please contact the copyright holder for reproduction or distribution.